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Кафедра перевода и переводоведения

Научный руководитель – доцент Л.Г.Ратушная

Источник статьи: Материалы 58-ой научной студенческой конференции, посвященной 70-летию ПГПУ имени В.Г. Белинского. Пенза, 2009с. Сс. 199-200.


Everybody has his or her favorite food but we don’t know what our grandparents and great-grandparents ate. The aim of our work is to show if the British eat something different today or if their eating habits are still the same as they used to be in the past. Medieval cuisine includes the foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages, a period roughly dating from the 5th to the 16th century Bread is the stuff of life.

One of the main products is bread. It turned out that the Brutish ate different types of bread depending on the amount of money they had and on their social status. The most popular medieval bread was “maslin” which was baked of a mixture of spring wheat and rye.

We have found out that most popular types of bread in Britain in the medieval period were “Pandernain” or “Paynemain”, the best quality bread. The most expensive type of bread was Wastel. It was as good as Pandernain. Cocket was much cheaper. Other type of bread were “cheat bread”, “tourte or treet” and “horse bread”. The mentioned above types of bread were for the poor.

The rich ate brown bread. Mostly they used it as plates called “trenchers” .Those “trenchers” were made of large loaves of bread that was cut into big pieces with a small pit in every piece. Food was put into the pit. Another variety of these “trenchers” is the so called “Raston”. The top of a loaf was cut. The inside was cut into pieces and mixed with melted butter. Then the mixture was put back into the loaf and the cut “cap” of the loaf was put back. Then they put these loaves into the oven for several minutes. Nowadays these ancient trenchers and raston are served as exclusive dishes. Another essential product for everybody is meat.

Most meat came from domesticated animals. Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was laborintensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. Far more common was pork, as pigs required less attention and cheaper feed. Mutton and lamb were fairly common. Every part of the animal was eaten, including ears, snout, tail and tongue. A wide range of birds was eaten, including swans, peafowl, quail, partridge, storks and just about any wild bird that could be hunted. We can see that meat and bread eating habits have changed a lot with time.





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Medieval cuisine, Pandernain, british national cuisine, british dishes